Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder
What Is Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder?
The essential features of premenstrual dysphoric disorder are the expression of mood lability, irritability, dysphoria, and anxiety symptoms that occur repeatedly during the premenstrual phase of the cycle and remit around the onset of menses or shortly thereafter. These symptoms may be accompanied by behavioral and physical symptoms. Symptoms must have occurred in most of the menstrual cycles during the past year and must have an adverse effect on work or social functioning. The intensity and/ or expressivity of the accompanying symptoms may be closely related to social and cultural background characteristics of the affected female, family perspectives, and more specific factors such as religious beliefs, social tolerance, and female gender role issues. Typically, symptoms peak around the time of the onset of menses. Although it is not uncommon for symptoms to linger into the first few days of menses, the individual must have a symptom-free period in the follicular phase after the menstrual period begins. While the core symptoms include mood and anxiety symptoms, behavioral and somatic symptoms in the absence of mood and/ or anxious symptoms is not sufficient for a diagnosis. Symptoms are of a comparable severity (but not duration) to those of another mental disorder, such as a major depressive episode or generalized anxiety disorder. In order to confirm a provisional diagnosis, daily prospective symptom ratings are required for at least two symptomatic cycles.*
*Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: DSM-5. 5th ed. Washington, D.C.: American Psychiatric Association, 2013. 172-173. Print